Mikrotik hardware offload

There are certain configuration that are known to have major flaws by design and should be avoided by all means possible. Misconfigured Layer2 can sometimes cause hard to detect network errors, random performance drops, certain segments of a network to be unreachable, certain networking services to be malfunctioning or a complete network failure.

mikrotik hardware offload

This page will contain some common and not so very common configurations that will cause issues in your network. Consider the following scenario, you have a device with a built-in switch chip and you need to isolate certain ports from each other, for this reason you have created multiple bridges and enabled hardware offloading on them.

Since each bridge is located on a different Layer2 domain, then Layer2 frames will not be forwarded between these bridges, as a result ports in each bridge are isolated from other ports in a different bridge. After a simple performance test you might notice that one bridge is capable of forwarding traffic at wire-speed while the second, third, Another symptom might be that there exists a huge latency for packets that need to be routed.

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After a quick inspection you might notice that the CPU is always at full load, this is because hardware offloading is not available on all bridges, but is available only on one bridge.

By checking the hardware offloading status you will notice that only one bridge has it active:. The reason why only one bridge has the hardware offloading flag available is because the device does not support port isolation.

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If port isolation is not supported, then only one bridge will be able to offload the traffic to the switch chip. Below is a list of possible symptoms that might be as a result of this kind of a misconfiguration:. This is usually a hardware limitation and a different device might be required.

Bridge split horizon parameter is a software feature that disables hardware offloading and when using bridge filter rules you need to enable forward all packets to the CPU, which requires the hardware offloading to be disabled.

Sometimes it is possible to restructure a network topology to use VLANs, which is the proper way to isolate Layer2 networks. Consider the following scenario, you setup a bridge and have enabled hardware offloading in order to maximize the throughput for your device, as a result your device is working as a switch, but you want to use Sniffer or Torch tools for debugging purposes, or maybe you want to implement packet logging. Since RouterOS v6. To understand why only some packets are captured, we must first examine how the switch chip is interconnected with the CPU, in this example we can use a block diagram from a generic 5-Port EThernet router:.

For this device each Ethernet port is connected to the switch chip and the switch chip is connected to the CPU using the CPU port sometimes called the switch-cpu port. If the switch chip cannot find the destination MAC address, then the packet is flooded to all ports including the CPU port.

In situations where packet is supposed to be forwarded from, for example, ether1 to ether2 and the MAC address for the device behind ether2 is in the hosts table, then the packet is never sent to the CPU and therefore will not be visible to Sniffer or Torch tool.

Packets with a destination MAC address that has been learned will not be sent to the CPU since the packets are not not being flooded to all ports.Here are some of the others:. While many commands have almost the exact same information, others are as close as possible. Bridging is a very confusing topic within the realm of MikroTik equipment. It is often associated with CPU forwarding and is generally seen as something to be avoided if at all possible. Within routers, bridging generally does rely on the CPU for forwarding and the throughput is limited to the size of the CPU.

In this instance, the bridge is merely used as a familiar configuration tool to tie ports and VLANs together but does in fact allow for the forwarding of traffic in hardware at wirespeed. This command will set the bridge loop prevention protocol to Multiple Spanning Tree.

Manual:Layer2 misconfiguration

Two or more physical interfaces can be selected to bond together and then the You can also select the hashing policy and ideally it should match what the device on the other end is set for to get the best distribution of traffic and avoid interoperability issues. The bridge monitor command will show the configuration details and current state of spanning tree including the root bridge and root port.For stability reasons it is recommended to create a loopback interface on each router that is involved either in dynamic routing or MPLS.

If you assign an IP address on a interface that is not a loopback interface, then the IP address will be inactive along with the interface, this will cause problems for routing protocols even if there are multiple paths to a single router. It is highly recommended that you use loopback interfaces in MPLS setups.

Before MPLS can be enabled in a network, routing must be set up. In this example we don't require traffic from any P or PE to be routable, we only require that CE1 and CE2 is able to route traffic to each other. We are going to need routes that point to In this example it is required not only for the traffic between CE1 and CE2 to be routable, but also the traffic between each MPLS enabled router to be routable using the loopback IP address.

Routes for loopback IP addresses can also be advertised using dynamic routing protocols, but to make this setup as simple and straightforward as possible, we are going to use static routes for loopback IP addresses as well. We are going to need to create routes for reach loopback IP address in the whole network. See static routing example here. Note: It is expected that the first P router in path will timeout when using traceroute, you can hide the MPLS network by setting propagate-ttl to no.

Some devices are capable of offloading certain MPLS functions.

Manual:Basic MPLS setup example

You can check if label switching is offloaded to the hardware by checking the forwarding table:. Jump to: navigationsearch.

Navigation menu Personal tools Log in. Namespaces Manual Discussion. Views Read View source View history. Navigation Main Page Recent changes. This page was last edited on 17 Julyat Many MikroTik devices come with a built-in switch chips that usually have an option to do VLAN switching on a hardware level, this means that you can achieve wire-speed performance using VLANs if a proper configuration method is used.

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More detailed examples can be found here. Warning: Not all devices with a switch chip are capable of VLAN switching on a hardware level, check the supported features for each switch chip, the compatibility table can be found Here. Note: By default, the bridge interface is configured with protocol-mode set to rstp. For some devices, this can disable hardware offloading because specific switch chips do not support this feature.

mikrotik hardware offload

See the Bridge Hardware Offloading section with supported features. Note: For devices that have multiple switch chips for example, RB, RB, RBeach switch chip is only able to switch VLAN traffic between ports that are on the same switch chip, VLAN filtering will not work on a hardware level between ports that are on different switch chips, this means you should not add all ports to a single bridge if you are intending to use VLAN filtering using the switch chip, VLANs between switch chips will not get filtered.

You can connect a single cable between both switch chips to work around this hardware limitation, another option is to use Bridge VLAN Filteringbut it disables hardware offloading and lowers the total throughput. Jump to: navigationsearch. Categories : Bridging and switching Case Studies. Navigation menu Personal tools Log in. Namespaces Manual Discussion. Views Read View source View history.

Navigation Main Page Recent changes. This page was last edited on 10 Januaryat The Cloud Router Switch series are highly integrated switches with high performance CPU and feature-rich packet processor. The CRS switches can be designed into various Ethernet applications including unmanaged switch, Layer 2 managed switch, carrier switch and wired unified packet processing. Warning: Currently it is possible to create only one bridge with hardware offloading on CRS3xx series devices.

Use the hw parameter to select which bridge will use hardware offloading. Since RouterOS v6. This set of features makes bridge operation more like a traditional Ethernet switch and allows to overcome Spanning Tree compatibilty issues compared to configuration when tunnel-like VLAN interfaces are bridged. Note: Since RouterOS v6. On CRS3xx series devices VLAN switching must be configured under the bridge section as well, this will not limit the device's performance, CRS3xx is designed to use the built-in switch chip to work with bridge VLAN filtering, you are able to achieve full non-blocking wire-speed switching performance while using bridges and bridge VLAN filtering.

Make sure that all bridge ports have the "H" flag, which indicates that the device is using the switch chip to forward packets. Note: It is possible to use the built-in switch chip and the CPU at the same time to create a Switch-Router setup, where a device acts as a switch and as a router at the same time.

You can find a configuration example in the CRS-Router guide. In this example we create two ACL rules, allowing a bidirectional communication.

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This can be done by doing the following:. Note: Bidirectional communication is limited only between two switch ports.

mikrotik hardware offload

Warning: By enabling vlan-filtering you will be filtering out traffic destined to the CPU, before enabling VLAN filtering you should make sure that you set up a Management port. For more detailed information you should check out the Spanning Tree Protocol manual page. Only You can find more information about the bonding interfaces in the Bonding Interface section.

If To create a hardware offloaded bonding interface, you must create a bonding interface with a supported bonding mode:. Note: Don't add interfaces to a bridge that are already in a bond, RouterOS will not allow you to add an interface that is already a slave to a bridge as there is no need to do it since a bonding interface already contains the slave interfaces. Mirroring lets the switch 'sniff' all traffic that is going in a switch chip and send a copy of those packets out to another port mirror-target.

This feature can be used to easily set up a 'tap' device that allows you to inspect the traffic on your network on a traffic analyzer device. It is possible to set up a simple port based mirroring where, but it is also possible to setup more complex mirroring based on various parameters.

Note that mirror-target port has to belong to same switch. Also mirror-target can have a special 'cpu' value, which means that 'sniffed' packets will be sent out of switch chips cpu port. There are many possibilities that can be used to mirror certain traffic, below you can find most common mirroring examples:. Note: Property mirror-source will send an ingress and egress packet copies to the mirror-target port.

Both mirror-source and mirror-target are limited to a single interface. Note: Using ACL rules, it is possible to mirror packets from multiple ports interfaces.

Only ingress packets are mirrored to mirror-target interface. There are other options as well, check the ACL section to find out all possible parameters that can be used to match packets. It is possible to limit certain type of traffic using ACL rules. For ingress traffic QoS policer is used, for egress traffic QoS shaper is used. A traffic storm can emerge when certain frames are continuously flooded on the network.

For example, if a network loop has been created and no loop avoidance mechanisms are used e. Spanning Tree Protocolbroadcast or multicast frames can quickly overwhelm the network, causing degraded network performance or even complete network breakdown.

With CRS3xx series switches it is possible to limit broadcast, unknown multicast and unknown unicast traffic. Unknown unicast traffic is considered when a switch does not contain a host entry for the destined MAC address. Storm control settings should be applied to ingress ports, the egress traffic will be limited.The bridge feature allows the interconnection of hosts connected to separate LANs using EoIP, geographically distributed networks can be bridged as well if any kind of IP network interconnection exists between them as if they were attached to a single LAN.

As bridges are transparent, they do not appear in traceroute list, and no utility can make a distinction between a host working in one LAN and a host working in another LAN if these LANs are bridged depending on the way the LANs are interconnected, latency and data rate between hosts may vary.

Network loops may emerge intentionally or not in complex topologies. Without any special treatment, loops would prevent network from functioning normally, as they would lead to avalanche-like packet multiplication. Each bridge runs an algorithm which calculates how the loop can be prevented. All other alternative connections that would otherwise form loops, are put to standby, so that should the main connection fail, another connection could take its place.

This algorithm exchanges configuration messages BPDU - Bridge Protocol Data Unit periodically, so that all bridges are updated with the newest information about changes in network topology. R STP selects a root bridge which is responsible for network reconfiguration, such as blocking and opening ports on other bridges.

The root bridge is the bridge with the lowest bridge ID. To combine a number of networks into one bridge, a bridge interface should be created later, all the desired interfaces should be set up as its ports.

One MAC address will be assigned to all the bridged interfaces the MAC address of first bridge port which comes up will be chosen automatically. Warning: Changing certain properties can cause the bridge to temporarily disable all ports.

Manual:Layer2 misconfiguration

This must be taken into account whenever changing such properties on production environments since it can cause all packets to be temporarily dropped. Such properties include vlan-filteringprotocol-modeigmp-snoopingfast-forward and others. RouterOS bridge interfaces are capable of running Spanning Tree Protocol to ensure a loop-free and redundant topology. For small networks with just 2 bridges STP does not bring much benefits, but for larger networks properly configured STP is very crucial, leaving STP related values to default may result in completely unreachable network in case of a even single bridge failure.

To achieve a proper loop-free and redundant topology, it is necessary to properly set bridge priorities, port path costs and port priorities. This can cause incompatibility issues between devices that does not support such values. To avoid compatibility issues, it is recommended to use only these priorities: 0,, Depending on needs, either one of them can be used, some devices are able to run some of these protocols using hardware offloading, detailed information about which device support it can be found in the Hardware Offloading section.

There are a lot of considerations that should be made when designing a STP enabled network, more detailed case studies can be found in the Spanning Tree Protocol section. There might be certain situations where you want to limit STP functionality on a single or multiple ports.

Below you can find some examples for different use cases. In this example BPDUs will not be sent out through ether1. In case the bridge is the root bridge, then loop detection will not work on this port.

If another bridge is connected to ether1then the other bridge will not receive any BPDUs and therefore might become as a second root bridge.I would like to know if the chips of the rb's and hEX support hardware offload, I see mention of hEX, but even enabling the option in the interface inside the bridge does not appear the H in the list of bridge interfaces.

I'm using version 6.


Sob Forum Guru. Re: hardware offload for rb and hEX Tue Apr 24, pm I don't know about these two exactly, but generally HW offload works only for some features. When you enable some extras not supported by HW, you're back to SW for whole thing.

People who quote full posts should be spanked with ethernet cable. Some exceptions for multi-topic threads may apply. Not intended as incentive for masochists. Re: hardware offload for rb and hEX Tue Apr 24, pm a simple bridge with no filter. Re: hardware offload for rb and hEX Thu Apr 26, am I checked the default configuration of a hEX gr3 today, after resetting it, and there's no indication of hw-offload being enabled with the default single bridge.

I am not sure what to make of that. Paternot Long time Member. With mine it's working. I'm with 6. Code: Select all. It looks like only CRS series devices can have both at the same time. Re: hardware offload for rb and hEX Thu Apr 26, pm even after disabling igmp makes no difference, offload hardware continues disabled. I am asking engineers from Mikrotik to test it on my TV network, but they don't want to.

Why don't you listen to your customers? Re: hardware offload for rb and hEX Thu Apr 26, pm in case of rb i think Hardware offload in bridges, works inly for physical Ethernet ports members of same switch chip mikrotik wiki specifically touch this topic on switch chip features if you are bridging a wireless interface i think you are limited to fast path acceleration if your bridge has only 2 ports you can try fast forward, "Special and faster case of Fast Path which works only on bridges with 2 interfaces", available since routeros 6.

Re: hardware offload for rb and hEX Fri Apr 27, am disable r stp and hw-offload will work. Why would that be? With the setting of NONE, my hw offload works! I'd rather manage rats than software. Follow my advice at your own risk! IGMP snooping works ok!! From the RuterOS version 6. Many years of requests and reminders.

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Re: hardware offload for rb and hEX Wed Oct 03, pm rb has no switch chip hardware offload work on devices has switch chip for rb use fast-path or fast track depend on device configs.

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